Eeg Neurotheraphy Within the Therapy Of Alcoholism Aan Addictions

Eeg Neurotheraphy Within the Remedy Of Alcoholism Aan Addictions


Introduction


Alcoholism is a illness that afflicts at least 12 million People. It leads to approximately 250,000 premature deaths a yr, disrupts the lives of some forty five million family members and costs an estimated $one hundred twenty billion a 12 months in medical bills, property injury and misplaced time and productivity.


Over the past eight years, a serious breakthrough within the treatment of alcoholism and chemical dependency has been persistently demonstrated by plenty of researchers, including (however not restricted to) Saxby and Peniston (1995 ), Anderson (1994 ), Sonder and Sonder (1994 ), White (1994 ), Cowan (1993 ), Patterson (1993 ), Peniston, Marrinan, Deming and Kulkosky (1993 ), Schneider, Elbert, Heimann, Welker, Stetter, Mattes, Birbaumer and Mann (1993 ), Byers (1992 ), Fahrion, Walters, Coyne and Allen (1992 ), and Peniston and Kulkosky (1990, 1989).


The essence of this therapy entails a non-invasive, non-pharmacological outpatient program combining EEG mind wave biofeedback (known as neurotherapy), extremely particular imagery of mind constructions, neurotransmitters and mind wave patterns, positive personalised visualizations, cognitive re-scripting and intensive cognitive-behavior therapy. This program, commonly referred to because the Peniston Protocol, is administered 3-5 days per week over a 7-12 week interval for a complete of 35-forty periods.


Success Charges and cost-Effectiveness


In sharp distinction to traditional inpatient, outpatient and 12-step treatment programs, which yield maximum success rates of 30-forty%, the long-time period (three year) abstinence rates for extreme alcoholics receiving the Peniston Protocol persistently attain eighty%. Furthermore, significant constructive, measurable and durable character modifications have persistently accompanied these startling results.


Further, these dramatic results appear to be deliverable at a really reasonable price (e.g., $4,000 - $6,000 total), particularly compared to the extraordinarily high cost of traditional inpatient therapy packages (e.g., $2,500 - $9,000 per week, relying on complexity of diagnosis and whether or not or not detoxification is included).


Background and Rationale


As it functions, the brain produces minute electrical signals on its floor referred to as mind waves. Mind waves consistently change because the mind handles the enterprise of dealing with itself and its surroundings. For over fifty years, this electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been used for neuroanalysis (e.g., analysis of brain illness or injury). With the arrival of fast computer systems, researchers are actually capable of quantitatively analyze the frequency and amplitude of brain waves (QEEG) to kind complicated topographic "maps" of the EEG's energy and frequency distribution for extra correct and effective diagnoses. They found that abnormal habits usually corresponded to abnormal brain wave patterns and distributions.


Conclusive analysis indicates that sure sorts of abnormal brain functioning might be corrected by studying to operantly condition the mind's electrical exercise. This conditioning is completed by visual and/or audio feedback of the moment-to-moment activity of the EEG. This visible/audio EEG suggestions is used by the affected person to be taught to increase or lower the ability and/or proportion of chosen brain wave frequencies This conditioning or training known as neurotherapy.


Neurotherapy is proving to be medically effective as a result of it facilitates positive neurochemical, persona and behavioral adjustments in relatively brief durations of time (weeks vs. months and even years). Furthermore, it's cost- efficient because it avoids the high bills related to surgical procedure, drugs or long- term inpatient or outpatient therapy.


Additionally drinking is broadly accepted amongst researchers and clinicians that patterns of surface EEG exercise reflect the activity of deeper brain structures and patterns of brain neurochemistry. For instance, those brain neurotransmitters, opioids, neurohormones and neuropeptides associated with reward and internal emotions of nicely-being are influenced straight (and thus fluctuate widely) in response to adjustments in cortical EEG patterns. Equally important, alcohol cravings and uncontrollable alcohol ingestion are now strongly associated with each deficiencies and/or abnormalities in certain mind neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin opioid peptides together with beta endorphin and enkephalin norepinephrine dopamine and GABA) and poorly developed low frequency EEG rhythms (e.g., alpha and theta) (Blum, 1991).


Consequently, as drinking and quite a few different researchers have proven, the normalization of alpha and theta EEG rhythms through neurotherapy produces the same normalization of mind chemistry that is produced by both alcohol ingestion or the exterior manipulation of the excitatory and inhibitory processes that management these important neurochemicals. In different phrases, the increased emotions of reward and inner effectively-being that occur from alcohol ingestion or different exterior influences of mind neurochemistry are additionally produced by the normalization of alpha and theta rhythms by way of neurotherapy.


Thus, the complicated interrelationships amongst these variables look like both at the foundation and the cure for severe alcohol cravings and uncontrollable alcohol ingestion. Moreover, these interrelationships and the normalization of the deficient components inside them by way of neurotherapy actually contribute to an understanding as to why the Peniston Protocol produces such spectacular outcomes with this tough clinical population.


Breakdown of the Peniston Protocol


Though there is some variation among clinicians, the next is a step- by-step breakdown of the mostly used clinical procedures throughout the Peniston Protocol:


( 1) Intake interview, evaluation and personality/behavioral pre-testing (e.g., MMPI II, MCMI II, Beck Depression Stock, Beck Hopelessness Scale and/or Sixteen Character Issue Questionnaire).



( 2) Brief pre-treatment QEEG topographic mind map.


( Three) Five preliminary non-EEG biofeedback periods (e.g. temperature, EMG, and/or pores and skin conductance).


( 4) Twenty-5 to thirty alpha/theta neurotherapy periods.


( 5) Brief put up-therapy QEEG topographic mind map.


( 6) Discharge interview, evaluation and character/behavioral submit-testing (e.g., MMPI II, MCMI II, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Hopelessness Scale and/or Sixteen Character Factor Questionnaire).


Persona/Behavioral Enhancements


Along with lengthy-time period (3 12 months) abstinence charges of 80%, the Peniston Protocol has persistently produced the next very healthy character modifications:


( 1) Vital decreases in scales labeled schizoid, avoidant, passive- aggressive, schizotypal, borderline, paranoid, anxiety, somatoform, dysthymia, alcohol abuse, psychotic pondering, depression, psychotic depression, hypochondriasis, hysteria, schizophrenia, social introversion and psychotic delusion.


( 2) Significant will increase in warmth, abstract pondering, stability, conscientiousness, boldness, imaginativeness and self-control.


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Thus, the Peniston Protocol constantly produces optimistic adjustments in what many consider to be "onerous wired" aspects of character. These dramatic personality changes improve the affected person's capability to cope with out substance abuse, considerably lowering the probability of relapse.


Abstract and Conclusion


Alcoholism is a debilitating and expensive illness that has responded poorly to traditional inpatient, outpatient and 12-step remedy packages (e.g., most 30-40% sustained abstinence). Researchers Eugene Peniston and Paul Kulkosky, along with many others over the previous eight years, have constantly demonstrated that extreme alcoholics handled with EEG neurotherapy, imagery/visualization and cognitive-habits therapy (e.g., the Peniston Protocol) show startling long-time period (three yr) abstinence charges of eighty%. Moreover, these extremely constructive results are constantly accompanied by dramatic, healthy character/behavioral changes that clearly contribute to reductions within the probability of relapse.


The neurotherapeutic modifications in alpha/theta EEG rhythms achieved by these patients with the Peniston Protocol produce low, sustained ranges of the opioid peptide beta-endorphin, reflecting lower sustained levels of arousal and stress. Furthermore, the normalization of low frequency cortical EEG rhythms (e.g., alpha & theta) apparently additionally produce normalization of several other brain neurochemicals whose imbalances are highly related to severe alcohol cravings and uncontrolled alcohol ingestion.


In addition to its extraordinarily excessive success fee for this difficult clinical population, the Peniston Protocol seems to be very value-effective in comparison to conventional inpatient and outpatient treatment packages.


Anderson, B. (1994 ). alcohol dependence of biofeedback and neurotherapy in personal observe within the treatment of alcohol and chemical dependency. Presentation delivered to the Advanced Brainwave Coaching Institute, Number 5, Washburn University, Topeka, Kansas, February, 1994.


Blum, Ok. (1991) Alcohol and the Addictive Mind. New York: The Free Press.


Byers, A.P. (1992 ). The normalization of a personality by way of neurofeedback therapy. Refined Energies, 3,1,1-17.


Cowan, J. (1993 ). Alpha-theta brainwave biofeedback: The numerous doable theoretical causes for its success. Biofeedback, 21, 2, eleven-sixteen.


Fahrion, S.L., Walters, E.D., Coyne, L., & Allen, T. (1992 ). Alteration in EEG amplitude, persona factors and brain electrical mapping after alpha- theta brainwave coaching: A managed case study of an alcoholic in recovery. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Analysis, 16, three, 547-552.


Patterson, D.M. (1993) The secret of my success as a therapist: Clinical procedures and success charges for the Peniston Protocol in the therapy of alcoholism , chemical dependency and publish-traumatic stress disorder. Invited presentation delivered to the staff of the Mastery Program, a subsidiary of Advanced Neuroscience Company, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, October, 1993.


Peniston, E.G., Marrinan, D.A., Deming, W.A., & Kulkosky, P.J. (1993 ). EEG alpha-theta brainwave synchronization in Vietnam theater veterans with combat- related post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol abuse. Advances in Medical Psychotherapy, 6, 37-50.


Peniston, E.G. & Kulkosky, P.J. (1990 ). Alcoholic persona and alpha-theta brainwave coaching. Medical Psychotherapy, three, 37-55.


Peniston, E.G. & Kulkosky, P.J. (1989 ). Alpha-theta brainwave coaching and beta-endorphin levels in alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Analysis, 13, 2, 271-277.


Saxby, E. & Peniston, E.G. (1995 ). Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: An effective therapy for male and feminine alcoholics with depressive symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51( 5 ), 685-693.


Schneider, F., Elbert, T., Heimann, H., Welker, A., Stetter, F., Mattes, R., Birbaumer, N., & Mann, Ok. (1993 ). Self-regulation of sluggish cortical potentials in psychiatric patients: Alcohol dependency. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 18( 1 ), 3-33.


Sonder, C. & Sonder, J. (1994) Alpha-theta brainwave training for alcoholism , chemical dependency and submit-traumatic stress disorder: Success rates for the Peniston Protocol. Personal communications regarding the Mastery Program, a subsidiary of Superior Neuroscience Corporation, Cherry Hill, New Jersey, January, 1994.


White, N. E. (1994 ). The Peniston Protocol as a multi-degree intervention: Theories of success of alpha-theta coaching. Panel presentation on the Twenty-Fifth Annual Conference of the Affiliation of Utilized Psychophysiology and Biofeedback entitled Alpha-Theta Brainwave Biofeedback: The Multiple Explanations for its Clinical Effectiveness, Atlanta, Georgia, March 7, 1994.


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